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COVID-19 and The Eye

A lot of on-going research is still being done about the new onset of coronavirus and whether it can still be truly transmitted through the eyes. We will cover some facts and questions about how COVID-19 can affect your eyes and your relationship with your eye doctor.

(1) Can tears transmit coronavirus?

The most recent study done by the National University Hospital in Singapore concludes that it is download (1)unlikely that COVID-19 can be transmitted through the tears. However, there are anecdotal reports around the community that possible tear transmission can occur – so caution should be taken.

(2) Can COVID be transmitted to the eyes through other mechanisms?

While tears are low risk for transmission for COVID, the latest report from the CDC states that it is possible for COVID to be spread from person to person through airborne “respiratory droplets” which are produced when someone coughs or sneezes, similar to how the flu is spread. These droplets can land in the mouth or noses of nearby people and can possibly be inhaled into the lungs. Lastly, these droplets can also be spread when you touch your face and eyes with unwashed hands.

(3) What can I do to protect my eyes?

Again, while tears are unlikely to transmit COVID, remember that there are still two main ways that COVID (as well as other viruses) can get into the eyes via mucus membranes and cause conjunctivitis such as:

(1) Coughing/Sneezing: COVID can still get into the eyes via aerosol transfer, so if you are standing within six feet of any affected person, they can sneeze and release droplets toward your face and eyes. If you are not wearing any protective eyewear, then risk of transmission is high.
Solution: For any personnel required to be in close contact with any possibly infected individual, protective eyewear like face shield or eye goggles is definitely a must. For the typical population, 6 feet of social distance is more than adequate

(2) Touching the eyes: COVID-19 can also be transmitted from hand to eyes. So if you touch a contaminated grocery cart, and then proceed to touch your eyes, you are at higher risk.
Solution: Avoid touching your eyes and face while constantly washing hands

(4) Can the coronavirus give you conjunctivitis (“Pink eye”)?

UV Keratitis.jpgWhile infected droplets (or mucus) can end up in another person’s mouth, nose & lungs, the latest study by American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) indicates that coronavirus might enter through the conjunctiva (clear part covering the white part) of the eyes and spread throughout the body via blood vessels within the eyeball. This can result in conjunctivitis (“pink eye”) – but more specifically viral conjunctivitis.

It is recognized that any upper respiratory tract infection may result in viral conjunctivitis as a secondary complication, and this is also the case with COVID-19. However, it is unlikely that a person would present with viral conjunctivitis secondary to COVID-19 without any other symptoms such as fever or a continuous cough.

Recent studies show that only 1-3% of affected COVID-19 people displayed symptoms of conjunctivitis. So fairly low risk.

(5) What are symptoms of viral conjunctivitis?

As mentioned above, any possible, low-risk COVID-19 related viral conjunctivitis will be treated as a typical viral conjunctivitis prior to the pandemic.
Viruses are actually the most common cause of conjunctivitis and usually affect both eyes. Symptoms normally last 5 to 12 days and include:

-Redness in the conjunctiva (white part of the eyes)
-Eyelid Swelling
-Sandy/gritty feelings in the eyeball
-Tearing (clear)
-Watery or slightly thick whitish draining

(6) How do you treat viral conjunctivitis?

If you suspect that you have any kind of conjunctivitis, contact your eye doctor for an in-person or virtual consult in order to confirm the viral diagnosis. This is because conjunctivitis can be caused from an array of sources such as dry eyes, bacteria, allergies and more seriously, iritis (severe inflammation of the eye).

While there is still on-going research on how to treat possible COVID-related conjunctivitis, the standard medicine 415397 960 720.jpgof care is to treat it similarly to how we would treat any typical viral conjunctivitis.
Viral conjunctivitis are usually self-limiting and will resolve on itself within 5-12 days. Your doctor might recommend some treatment to reduce your symptoms:

-It is highly contagious so practice good hygiene by washing your hands often and avoid cross contamination
-Over-The-Counter Artificial tears and cold compresses help to relieve symptoms
-Discontinue all contact lens wear during the acute phase
-Topical antihistamines or steroid eye drops may be used to relieve redness or discomfort
-Antiviral eye drops might be prescribed depending on the severity of the viral infection
-Antibacterial eye drops are not effective for viral conditions

(7) Are there other ocular or retina symptoms associated with COVID-19 exposure?

A recent but small study of 12 adults with COVID-19 show that there might be mild changes in the blood vessels of the retina also known as “hypertensive retinopathy” related to COVID-19, but without any loss in vision.

This is still on-going research. In addition, there have been anecdotal reports of optic neuritis (inflammation of the optic nerve, which can lead to permanent vision loss) from around other eye care providers but no confirmed studies.

(8) What if I wear contact lenses?

Proper hygiene care of your contact lens is especially important during this viral pandemic, in order to maintain optimal ocular health and prevent transmission:
Wash your hands with soap/water for at least 20 seconds and then dry them with a lint-free towel prior to handling your contact lenses. If soap and water are not available, using a hand sanitizer (with at least 60% alcohol) is acceptable

16247 tears shutterstock news.jpgDisinfect your contacts properly with the recommended cleaning solution as recommended by your optometrist. Do not use saline solution or OTC rewetting drops to disinfect your contact lenses.
Dispose of your daily disposable contacts each evening, or dispose of your 2-weeks or monthly lenses as instructed. Over-extending your contact lenses will increase risk of infection.
Discontinue lens wear if you are feeling sick with cold or flu-like symptoms and wear your back-up glasses as needed.

(9) Can my glasses get infected?

The latest studies show that new coronavirus can remain on hard surfaces for hours to days, and therefore can transfer to your face, then to your glasses. Therefore, glasses should be cleaned more regularly (daily if possible) with a mild dishwashing liquid soap (non-lotion) and lukewarm water.

Gently rub each lens and all part of the frame with your fingertips for a few seconds. Then dry off with a clean, cotton lint-free towel (ideally those used to clean fine glassware). Finally, remove any streaks/smudges with a clean lint-free microfiber cloth.
Here are some tips to avoid damaging the anti reflective coating of your lens or paint finish of the frame.

Avoid using your shirt or other cloth type, paper towels, tissues or toilet paper especially when the lens is dry to prevent scratching.
Do not use household glass-cleaner since these products have ingredients that can damage the lens and coating.

Avoid alcohol wipes and other disinfection methods such as Lysol wipes since they can damage the AR coating of the lens and frame paint.

Please note that a solution of warm water and hydrogen peroxide at 0.5% concentration is recommended for optimal disinfection of frame, but we are aware that these disinfection products are not widely available to consumers.


In conclusion, there is a lot of new and ongoing eye research in relation to COVID and we expect more evidence to come out as new studies get completed. In the meantime, keep practicing proper eye health hygiene and if there are any concerns, please don’t hesitate to reach out to us!


-Dr. Aaron Neufeld

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Dr. Aaron Neufeld is the Chief Optometrist at Los Altos Optometric Group and primary author and editor of The EYE Digest.

To contact him with questions or make an appointment call: (650) 948-3700 or send him an email:

Diabetes and The Eye

The retinal image pictured above is from a patient that came to me for her annual eye exam. The patient was a 40 year old female that stated she had no had a regular health exam or eye exam in over 5 years, but was “perfectly health” and on no medications. Her retinal image showed a different story.



The image shows severe diabetic retinopathy. This patient had been suffering with diabetes for years and had no idea. I immediately sent her to our local hospital for treatment. I received correspondence later in which a doctor stated “I can’t believe she was even alive.” Our patient was stabilized after going on a host of medications and lifestyle changes, however she did not have to get a toe amputated in the process.


November is National Diabetes Month. Diabetes affects over 100 million Americans according to the CDC. The disease costs America nearly $250 billion per year. While diabetes deals with blood sugar and insulin levels, it also has many correlations with eye health.

Diabetic complications can show up on nearly every part of the eye including the cornea, iris, lens and retina.

Retinal complications are of considerable importance for two reasons:

1) These complications are the ones that eyecare providers must be most vigilant of since they can lead to vision loss and blindness if not treated in a proper time frame

2) These complications are often noted upon retinal examinations, sometimes before a formal diagnosis for diabetes is given.

So what’s the moral of the story? It’s simple. Have your eyes checked regularly if you are a diabetic and also if you are not. Individuals living withCanva   Black Contour Ts Displaying at 4.8 diabetes should have annual and sometimes more frequent eye exams that thoroughly evaluate the retina for any diabetic complications. Individuals living without diabetes should also have a yearly eye exam to check for possible health issues such as diabetes as well for an overall vision and health evaluation. Being vigilant about the health of your eyes can benefit your body as a whole. Pass the knowledge on as we get underway with National Diabetes Month.

Schedule an appointment with one of our doctors today.

-Dr. Aaron Neufeld

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Dr. Aaron Neufeld is the Chief Optometrist at Los Altos Optometric Group and primary author and editor of The EYE Digest.

To contact him with questions or make an appointment call: (650) 948-3700 or send him an email:


The Importance of Vision in a Child’s Learning

October is National Learning & Development month, as well as National Dyslexia Awareness Month and National ADD/ADHD Awareness Month. While many educators and parents view learning and development in children as purely a brain activity, the eyes play an important factor in a child’s education.

At every step of learning, the eyes are constantly involved since vision is one of the key components of both comprehending and retaining information on a subject. Specifically, we can break down eyesight as it relates to learning into three broad categories:

1) Visual Acuity – Sharpness of vision both in the distance and up close

2) Eye Teaming – The ability of the eyes to work together

3) Eye Motility – the ability of the eyes to move in certain ways

These three broad categories of eyesight must all be working at an effective and efficient level in order for a child to achieve his/her maximum potential when learning. So how do these three categories work in synergy to allow for learning? Let’s take a look.

Snellen chartVisual acuity refers to an individual’s ability to see clearly at a distance and up close. Obviously, if either of these are hindered, a student’s ability to learn drastically decreases since the visual material is not legible. Often, children do not complain about reduced visual acuity (blurry vision) because they view their vision as normal. Reduced visual acuity can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.

Eye teaming is the ability of the eyes to work together and is often referred to as binocular vision. Eye teaming also is responsible for “3D vision” or stereopsis. When eye teaming does not work properly; eyestrain, headaches and sometimes double vision can result. In children, these symptoms often manifest as disinterest in reading or learning, since a constant discomfort is felt when trying to read, write or focus on a given object. Eye teaming issues are dealt with through prescription glasses and sometimes through vision therapy.

Eye motility is the ability of the eyes to move in certain ways. In general, we categorize eye motility into two movements: 1) pursuits, which are smooth tracking movements and 2) saccades, which are quick jerking movements from point A to Things Children Learn From Preschool 300×200point B. Efficiency and efficacy of these two movements are vital for reading. Pursuits are used to read across the page and saccades are used to jump from line to line. When one or both of these are lacking, students often find reading and following along with lessons difficult. This in turn leads to frustration and disinterest. Eye motility issues can be fixed through vision therapy programs.

In conclusion, eyesight plays an important role in children’s learning. Often, the underlying problem for a child diagnosed with a learning deficiency is actually related to vision. This is why it is vital to schedule school aged children for an eye exam once a year. Not only is eye health checked, but key components for effective learning and happiness are examined to ensure a positive growth experience while in school.

Schedule an appointment for your child with us today!

-Dr. Aaron Neufeld

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Dr. Aaron Neufeld is the Chief Optometrist at Los Altos Optometric Group and primary author and editor of The EYE Digest.

To contact him with questions or make an appointment call: (650) 948-3700 or send him an email:

Golf Vision – Improving Your Game through Better Vision

Eyesight on the golf course is vital to your game. golf 1486354 960 720

Whether you are looking at the ball while swinging or spotting the ball after driving down the fairway, your vision is constantly being used while on the course. With the The Masters Tournament finishing up and golf season in full swing, here are 4 ways that proper golf glasses/sunglasses can help you:

1) Distance Correction – Sharpness and max acuity are vital for spotting your ball and looking down the fairway. Make sure you have an updated prescription in your glasses and visit us even if you think you have perfect vision – there may be a slight distance correction or astigmatism correction that can be found that can give you an advantage if utilized in lenses.

IMG 59652) Contrast Enhancing – Colored lenses like the rose tint seen in the pair of Oakley Golf Prizms that I am holding in the picture enable you to have better depth perception and read the green better.

3) Tint – Darker tints will enhance comfort, concentration and vision on sunny days. Polarization is often a controversial topic – while it may help reduce low angle glare, it can affect depth perception – thus it is up to the individual golfer whether or not to have polarized lenses

4) Wind/Dust Protection – Having glasses on will physically protect you from oncoming wind, dust and debris. This in turn will prevent eye irritation and allow better focus.


Now that you know all the advantages of wearing a pair of glasses/sunglasses for golf, here are three vital eyesight tools to carry in your golf bag when playing a round of 9 or 18:

1) Artificial Tears – especially on windy, cold and dry days, the eyes tend to dry out when playing golf. This is not only due to the elements, but also due to the lack of blinking that occurs when you are medicine 415397 960 720intently focusing on the golf ball. Playing out of a sand trap (hopefully not too often!) also opens up the possibility of getting sand/debris in the eyes. Artificial tears are great for flushing the eyes out. For specific brands, I recommend Systane Complete, Blink Tears or Refresh Optive.

2) Allergy Drops – Playing golf, especially during seasons with a high pollen count, increases your chance of developing seasonal allergies. These allergies can affect your eyes by causing itchiness and watering. Thus, it is wise to always carry an allergy drop that can provide quick relief. I recommend either Alaway or Zaditor. These are safe, over-the-counter drops, dosed twice a day, that stop allergy symptoms in the eyes.

3) Spray Cleaner and Microfiber Cloth – Face it, if you’re golfing with glasses or sunglasses, they’re going to get dirty. Whether it be from sweat, oil, fingerprints, moisture in the air or debris; your eye-wear will get dirty when on the course. I recommend carrying our own branded spray cleaner and microfiber cloth. The best part? We give them away at absolutely no cost. Just stop by our office and pick up what you need!

-Dr. Aaron Neufeld


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Dr. Aaron Neufeld is the Chief Optometrist at Los Altos Optometric Group and primary author and editor of The EYE Digest.

To contact him with questions or make an appointment call: (650) 948-3700 or send him an email:



Snow Blindness – Can I Really Go Blind from the Snow?

-The EYE Digest-

Snow Blindness – Can I Really Go Blind from the Snow?

In short, no, snow blindness doesn’t actually cause blindness, but read on for more information!


What is it?

Snow blindness is also known as photokeratitis. “Keratitis” means inflammation of the cornea (the Snow gogglessensitive, clear part of the eye in front of the colored iris), while “photo” means light. Snow blindness is when the cornea becomes inflamed after being overexposed to light, or more specifically ultraviolet (UV) light. To put it simply, snow blindness in a sunburn on your eye!


What causes it?

The most common cause of snow blindness is just as you may have guessed…snow! More specifically, it is the UV light that is reflected off the snow and into your eyes. Approximately 80% of the UV light that hits fresh snow is bounced back into the air and potentially into your eyes. This is significantly greater than sand or water which have UV reflectance of 15% and 25%, respectively. To make matters worse, many snow related activities such as skiing or snowboarding occur at higher altitudes where UV light is stronger – with every 1,000 ft of elevation from sea level, the intensity of UV light increases by 4%.

Snow, sand, and water aren’t the only sources of snow blindness/ultraviolet keratitis. Tanning beds and arc flashes from welding can also cause ultraviolet keratitis. When it is associated with welding, it is called a flash burn.


What are the symptoms?

UV KeratitisEye pain, irritation, and a foreign body or burning sensation are a few of the symptoms you can experience. Other symptoms include light sensitivity, watery eyes, red eyes, and blurred vision.


What is the treatment?

The treatment goals of snow blindness are first and foremost to prevent worsening by staying indoors or wearing UV eye protection and second, to keep the eye comfortable as it heals itself. Luckily, snow blindness resolves on its own within 24-72 hours. In the meantime it is advised to avoid rubbing your eyes and remove contact lenses.

Non-preserved artificial tears and lubricating ointments are recommended to act as a cushion between the sunburned cornea and the mechanical motion of your eyelid rubbing across the cornea. Artificial tears and ointments on a sunburned eye have a similar affect as putting aloe vera on your sunburned skin.

If the pain is still too much to handle, then over the counter pain relievers such as Tylenol or Advil can be used. Topical pain relieving eye drops (NSAIDS) can be prescribed by your eye doctor.

If the degree of ultraviolet keratitis is significant enough, your eye care provider may prescribe a topical antibiotic to prevent a secondary infection.


How do I prevent it?

Tanning bed

Just like a sunburn on your skin, once you’ve become symptomatic,

you have already been in the sun for far too long. Fortunately, snow blindness is completely preventable by wearing snow goggles or eye masks with 100% UV protection. If you are at the beach, lake, or any body of water wearing sunglasses with 100% UV protection is recommended. The best type of eye protection is the type


that wraps around the face reducing the amount of UV light

that can reach your eye from the sides, top, or bottom of the frame. And remember, UV light is still present even on an overcast day, so when in doubt, where eye protection!


Welders are advised to wear welding goggles or welding helmets.


-Dr. Janelle Santa Maria


Dr. Janelle Santa Maria is an optometrist at Los Altos Optometric Group and contributing author and editor of The EYE Digest.

To contact her with questions or make an appointment call: (650) 948-3700 or send her an email:

8 Tips to Relieve Winter Dry Eyes

Whether you live in a climate with cold winter weather or you are planning a ski trip up north, winter can be a challenge if you suffer from dry eyes. Dry, cool air, cold winds and even drier indoor heating can cause eye irritation, burning, itchiness and redness, and sometimes even excessively watery eyes as more tears are produced to compensate for the dryness. Many people have a chronic feeling that they have something in their eye and some even experience blurred vision. These symptoms can be debilitating!

Dry eyes is one of the most common complaints eye doctors get from patients during the winter season, especially in the cooler climates. That’s why we’d like to share some tips on how to relieve dry eye discomfort, and how to know when your condition is serious enough to come in for an evaluation.

Tips to Relieve Winter Dry Eyes:

  1. Keep eyes moist using artificial tears or eye drops. You can apply these a few times each day when the eyes are feeling dry or irritated. If over-the-counter drops don’t help or if you have chronic dry eyes, speak to your eye doctor about finding the best drops for you. Since not all artificial tears are the same, knowing the cause of your dry eye will help your eye doctor determine which brand is best suited for your eyes.
  2. Use a humidifier to counteract the drying effects of indoor heaters or generally dry air.
  3. Point car vents or indoor heaters away from your face when the heat is on. Try to keep your distance from direct sources of heating, especially if they blow out the heat.
  4. Drink a lot! Hydrating your body will also hydrate your eyes.
  5. Protect your eyes outdoors with sunglasses or goggles – the bigger the better! Larger, even wrap-around glasses as well as a hat with a wide brim will keep the wind and other elements out of your eyes. If you wear goggles for winter sports, make sure they fit well and cover a large surface area.
  6. Soothe dry eyes using a warm compress and never rub them! Rubbing your eyes will increase irritation and may lead to infection if the hands are not clean.
  7. Give your eyes a digital break. People blink less during screen time which is why extensive computer use can lead to dry eyes. Follow the 20/20/20 rule by taking a break every 20 minutes to look 20 feet away for 20 seconds and make sure you blink!
  8. For contact lens wearers: If you wear contact lenses, dry eyes can be particularly debilitating as the contact lenses can cause even further dryness and irritation. Contact lens rewetting drops can help your eyes feel better and may also allow you to see more clearly. Not all eyedrops are appropriate for use with contact lenses, so ask your optometrist which eyedrop is compatible with your contacts and cleaning solution. If rewetting drops don’t help, consider opting for glasses when your dry eyes are bad, and speak to your optometrist about which brands of contact lenses are better for dry eyes. Many people find dry eye improvement when they switch to daily single use contact lenses.

Chronic Dry Eyes or Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry eye syndrome is a chronic condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tear film, or do not produce the quality of tear film needed to properly keep the eyes moist. While winter weather can make this condition worse, it is often present all year round. If you find that the tips above do not alleviate your discomfort or symptoms, it may be time to see a optometrist to see if your condition requires more effective medical treatment.

Diabetes and Your Eyes

Diabetes is becoming much more prevalent around the globe. According to the International Diabetes Federation, approximately 425 million adults were living with diabetes in the year 2017 and 352 million more people were at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. By 2045 the number of people diagnosed is expected to rise to 629 million.

Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness as well as heart attacks, stroke, kidney failure, neuropathy (nerve damage) and lower limb amputation. In fact, in 2017, diabetes was implicated in 4 million deaths worldwide. Nevertheless preventing these complications from diabetes is possible with proper treatment, medication and regular medical screenings as well as improving your diet, physical activity and adopting a healthy lifestyle.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the hormone insulin is either underproduced or ineffective in its ability to regulate blood sugar. Uncontrolled diabetes leads to hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, which damages many systems in the body such as the blood vessels and the nervous system.

How Does Diabetes Affect The Eyes?

Diabetic eye disease is a group of conditions which are caused, or worsened, by diabetes; including: diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema, glaucoma and cataracts. Diabetes increases the risk of cataracts by four times, and can increase dryness and reduce cornea sensation.

In diabetic retinopathy, over time, the tiny blood vessels within the eyes become damaged, causing leakage, poor oxygen circulation, then scarring of the sensitive tissue within the retina, which can result in further cell damage and scarring.

The longer you have diabetes, and the longer your blood sugar levels remain uncontrolled, the higher the chances of developing diabetic eye disease. Unlike many other vision-threatening conditions which are more prevalent in older individuals, diabetic eye disease is one of the main causes of vision loss in the younger, working-age population. Unfortunately, these eye conditions can lead to blindness if not caught early and treated. In fact, 2.6% of blindness worldwide is due to diabetes.

Diabetic Retinopathy

As mentioned above, diabetes can result in cumulative damage to the blood vessels in the retina, the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. This is called diabetic retinopathy.

The retina is responsible for converting the light it receives into visual signals to the optic nerve in the brain. High blood sugar levels can cause the blood vessels in the retina to leak or hemorrhage, causing bleeding and distorting vision. In advanced stages, new blood vessels may begin to grow on the retinal surface causing scarring and further damaging cells in the retina. Diabetic retinopathy can eventually lead to blindness.

Signs and Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy

The early stages of diabetic retinopathy often have no symptoms, which is why it’s vitally important to have frequent diabetic eye exams. As it progresses you may start to notice the following symptoms:

  • Blurred or fluctuating vision or vision loss
  • Floaters (dark spots or strings that appear to float in your visual field)
  • Blind spots
  • Color vision loss

There is no pain associated with diabetic retinopathy to signal any issues. If not controlled, as retinopathy continues it can cause retinal detachment and macular edema, two other serious conditions that threaten vision. Again, there are often NO signs or symptoms until more advanced stages.

A person with diabetes can do their part to control their blood sugar level. Following the physician’s medication plan, as well as diet and exercise recommendations can help slow the progression of diabetic retinopathy.

Retinal Detachment

Scar tissues caused by the breaking and forming of blood vessels in advanced retinopathy can lead to a retinal detachment in which the retina pulls away from the underlying tissue. This condition is a medical emergency and must be treated immediately as it can lead to permanent vision loss. Signs of a retinal detachment include a sudden onset of floaters or flashes in the vision.

Diabetic Macular Edema (DME)

Diabetic macular edema occurs when the macula, a part of the retina responsible for clear central vision, becomes full of fluid (edema). It is a complication of diabetic retinopathy that occurs in about half of patients, and causes vision loss.

Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema

While vision loss from diabetic retinopathy and DME often can’t be restored, with early detection there are some preventative treatments available. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (when the blood vessels begin to grow abnormally) can be treated by laser surgery, injections or a procedure called vitrectomy in which the vitreous gel in the center of the eye is removed and replaced. This will treat bleeding caused by ruptured blood vessels. DME can be treated with injection therapy, laser surgery or corticosteroids.

Prevent Vision Loss from Diabetes

The best way to prevent vision loss from diabetic eye disease is early detection and treatment. Since there may be no symptoms in the early stages, regular diabetic eye exams are critical for early diagnosis. In fact diabetics are now sometimes monitored by their health insurance to see if they are getting regular eye exams and premium rates can be affected by how regularly the patients get their eyes checked. Keeping diabetes under control through exercise, diet, medication and regular screenings will help to reduce the chances of vision loss and blindness from diabetes.

Comfort, Clarity and Cleanliness – The Beauty of Daily Disposable Contacts

-The EYE Digest-

Comfort, Clarity and Cleanliness – The Beauty of Daily Disposable Contacts

According to the CDC (Center for Disease Control), roughly 45 million Americans wear contact lenses. That translates to about 13% of the US population placing a conta16247 tears shutterstock newsct lens in the eye everyday! Contact lenses are a fascinating invention that allow for sharp vision without the burden of standard eyeglasses.

In this decade, when we refer to contact lenses, a soft lens is probably what comes to mind. While hard lenses (rigid gas permeable, scleral or reverse geometry like Orthokeratology) with certain long term wearers as well as correcting certain corneal conditions, soft contact lenses have become much more prevalent.

Offering advantages such as ease of use and comfort, soft contact lenses come in a variety of offerings. Soft contact lenses can correct for astigmatism using toric technology, and can even correct for presbyopia and be offered as a stand-in for bifocals/progressive lenses through the use of multifocal technology.

There are three main replacement schedules that soft contact lenses can come in:

-Monthly replacement

-Bi-weekly replacement

-Daily replacement

While monthly and bi-weekly modalities dominated the contact lens industry for a while, we are increasingly seeing a shift towards the daily replacement modality. Why? Well there are 5 great reasons to wear daily contact lenses:

  1. Lower Risk of Eye Infection – A monthly/bi-weekly lens requires cleaning and storage of the lens contact lensesover a long period of time. This allows for harmful bacteria and other bugs to grow on the lenses. Additionally, the oxygen lacking environment that sleeping in certain monthly lenses causes can lead to painful eye infections. Daily lenses essentially eliminate this risk by using a fresh lens everyday.
  2. Better Comfort – Since you are using a fresh lens everyday, there is an added level of comfort when popping the new lens in!
  3. Better Clarity – A fresh lens everyday also eliminates the protein and lipid build up that is standard on monthly/bi-weekly lenses. This allows for less cloudy and thus sharper
  4. Convenience – Lost a lens? No worries, just pop another one in! No more waiting another month replace that lens or buy another box.
  5. No More Solution – With their unique individual blister packs, the need for contact lens solution is virtually eliminated.

A Note about Disposal

Recent media articles have pointed to many daily disposable lenses ending up in pipelines and sewers. If you are wearing or plan to wear daily disposable lenses, make sure to always throw them away in the trash can! Never flush them down the toilet or place them in down the sink drain.

In conclusion, daily disposable contact lenses offer a lucrative vision correction alternative that results in healthy eyes and better vision! With roughly 70% of contact lens wearers in our practice wearing daily disposables, we truly believe that these lenses can positively impact your well-being and lifestyle if your eyes fit the parameters for wearing a daily lens.

Give us a call and schedule a contact lens fit today, your eyes will thank you!


-Dr. Aaron Neufeld

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Dr. Aaron Neufeld is the Chief Optometrist at Los Altos Optometric Group and primary author and editor of The EYE Digest.

To contact him with questions or make an appointment call: (650) 948-3700 or send him an email:

Spring Has Sprung: Allergies and the Eye

-The EYE Digest-

Spring Has Sprung: Allergies and the Eye


Spring time is in full swing and while many welcome the warmer weather and the longer daytime hours, there are others who dread spring and what it gives rise to…allergies from blooming flowers and the pollen they release.Allergens

Allergies occur when an environmental irritant causes cells to release histamines which cause inflammation.


What are the most common sources of allergies?

Allergies can be broken down into two categories: seasonal and perennial. Seasonal allergies are caused by pollen from flowers, trees, grasses, weeds as well as spores from mold. Seasonal allergies usually begin in spring and can last well into autumn. Perennial allergies, on the other hand, occur year round and are triggered by pet dander, dust mites, perfumes, smoke, and some cosmetics and medication.


Is it a cold and a “pink eye” or allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis?

ConjunctivitisCommon allergy symptoms include sneezing, sniffling and sinus congestion. These symptoms are classic for allergic rhinitis (allergies affecting the nasal passages). Since these symptoms present similarly to the common cold, those with allergic rhinitis often spend their time convincing others that they don’t have a cold and aren’t infectious, but instead, are suffering from allergies. In addition to affecting the nose, allergies can also affect the eyes. Those with ocular allergies have red, puffy, watery or mucous discharge, and itchy eyes that seem to get itchier the more they rub. These symptoms can affect the eyelids and the conjunctiva (the clear tissue that sits on top of the white part of the eye). When the conjunctiva is affected, it is considered an allergic conjunctivitis. Fortunately, this type of conjunctivitis is not contagious like your typical viral or bacterial “pink eye”.


How do I alleviate my symptoms?

The best way to prevent the symptoms is to avoid the trigger. If you’re allergic to cats or a certain type of perfume, then stay away from them. Sometimes it’s not so easy to avoid your trigger especially if it’s caused by pollen or spores. Fortunately, there are websites such as or that track pollen count across the United States and categorize the pollen count from low to high. Certain lifestyle modifications such as avoiding out door activities during high pollen counts can be beneficial.


ClaritinWhen your allergen can’t be avoided, there are medications, both over the counter and prescribed, that can improve symptoms. Oral over the counter medications such as Claritin, Zyrtec, and Allegra have anti-histamines that work against the histamine molecule which causes the inflammation and symptoms in the first place. If you primarily have ocular symptoms and minimal to no nasal symptoms, then a topical eye drop may be more beneficial. These topical eye drops include ketotifen


For an added “boost”, try putting the eye drops in the fridge for a nice, cooling therapy. A clean, cold wash cloth can have the same affect.

(e.g. Zaditor, Alaway) and olopatadine (e.g. Pataday, Patanol). If your symptoms are mild, you may even get away with using over the counter artificial tears.


Why does my eye doctor tell me to stay away from “get the redness out” type of eye drops?

Redness relief eye drops like Visine and Opcon A are great at getting the red out, which is important if you have an important meeting or event, but with extended use they can cause rebound congestion and redness that can be worse than the initial symptoms!


These eye drops aren’t helping, I need something stronger!

If antihistamine eye drops aren’t enough to alleviate your symptoms, then your eye doctor can prescribe a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or a steroid.


-Dr. Janelle Santa Maria


Dr. Janelle Santa Maria is an optometrist at Los Altos Optometric Group and contributing author and editor of The EYE Digest.

To contact her with questions or make an appointment call: (650) 948-3700 or send her an email:

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) – A Definitive Guide

-The EYE Digest-

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) – A Definitive Guide

When the term chronic disease is stated, what pops into your mind? Diabetes, heart disease, and cancer are a few common and quite frankly, scary diagnoses. Now let’s dig a little deeper, when you think of a chronic disease that can debilitate an organ, what is the scariest we can think of? Certainly a large majority of individuals would choose the eyes. Vision is a vital sense after all. 1Cataracts and glaucoma are common, worrisome disease that rob eyesight, but what about that other one? The one that can be really bad and can drastically reduce the central vision?

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a diagnosis that no one wants to receive. It has a reputation of blinding individuals and making life absolutely miserable. Worldwide, it is estimated that roughly 6.2 million people suffer from AMD.


So what exactly is AMD and how can we prevent it?

Age-related macular degeneration, as defined by its namesake, is a disease that affects the macula. The macula is a tiny pit of concentrated photoreceptors on the retina (back of the eye). This area is responsible for our central vision, and due to its concentration of photoreceptors, also happens to be point of sharpest vision.

The progression of AMD tends to be slow. Early signs of AMD are often detected at an annual eye exam by means of dilated retinal exam or retinal photos. AMD may present in one eye or both eyes. If it 2occurs in both eyes, the severity between eyes may be different.

As the disease process progresses, the patient slowly begins to lose his/her central vision. This becomes problematic since this is the sharpest part of our vision, responsible for recognizing faces, reading or driving. Even if central vision is completely compromised, advanced AMD patients tend to still have some peripheral vision left, so they are not completely blind.


Types of AMD

There are two types of AMD, dry and wet. 3 The type of AMD is diagnosed based upon its appearance. Dry AMD unfortunately has no treatment options. Wet AMD can be treated with a variety of methods including laser photocoagulation and injection of anti-VEGF factors such as Lucentis or Avastin. Keep in mind that these treatments do not cure AMD, they simply try to slow down or possibly halt the disease where it is at.



What Causes AMD?

AMD finds its roots in genetics, demographics, environmental and lifestyle factors.

5Genetic mutations in genes including HTRA1, SERPING1 and Fibulin-5 have all been linked to development of AMD. Current genetic testing technologies are able to locate these genes and help with early treatment.

Demographics play a big role in development of AMD. As stated in its name, the disease is age-related and most often occurs in older individuals. Individuals with fair 4complexions and lighter skin seem to develop AMD at a higher rate than their counterparts. Related factors that can further put the patient at risk for AMD are atherosclerosis, hypertension (high blood pressure) and family history.

Lifestyle factors, especially smoking, can lead to AMD. Besides smoking, diets that are deficient in leafy green vegetables and frequent unprotected exposure to UV light can lead an individual down the road of developing AMD.


So how do we prevent AMD from occurring?

There a few preventive measures that an individual can take to stave off AMD. These measures mainly revolve around lifestyle:

The Big Four Ways to Prevent/Slow Down AMD

  1. Don’t Smoke
  2. Wear Sunglasses outside
  3. Daily intake of dark leafy green vegetables
  4. Visit your eye doctor regularly


How do we treat AMD when it does happen?

AMD is slow, progressive disease and generally comes in stages. During early stages, there is often no treatment, and the condition is monitored with regular eye exams and devices such as the Amsler grid, which is pictured below.


During the early to middle stages of AMD, eye doctors may recommend an AREDS II supplement, in 8addition to the Big Four. Brand names for this supplement include Preservision, Ocuvite and Tozal. The AREDS II supplement formula is a variety of vitamins and antioxidants that have shown to be beneficial in slowing AMD through clinical trials.

When AMD gets to the more advanced stages, certain variants such as advanced wet AMD may require intravitreal injections such as Lucentis, Avastin or Eylea. These injections are administered into the eyeball and contain factors that slow the disease from progressing even further.


-Dr. Aaron Neufeld

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Dr. Aaron Neufeld is the Chief Optometrist at Los Altos Optometric Group and primary author and editor of The EYE Digest.

To contact him with questions or make an appointment call: (650) 948-3700 or send him an email:


In order to keep our patients safe and prevent the spread of COVID-19, our office is adhering to strict CDC/SCC guidelines, including: (1) Face Mask Requirement for all, (2) Temperature Checks upon entering, (3) Hand sanitizer/washing upon entering, (4) Social Distancing, (5) HEPA13-grade Air Purifiers every 200 sq ft, (6) Advanced UV Sanitization of frames, (7) Sterilization of commonly touched surfaces/equipment, (8) Hand sanitizer/washing stations every 50 sq ft, (9) Building Capacity limitation. (10) All staff and doctors have been vaccinated